Endodontic treatment (“endo” – inside; “dont” – tooth), commonly known as Root canal treatment.
Treatment is needed when the pulp becomes inflamed or infected. The causes could be deep tooth decay, repeated dental procedures on one tooth (replacing a large filling, for example), or traumatic damage such as a crack, chip or even a root fracture. Gum disease can also give rise to root canal problems necessitating root canal treatment.
Any of these issues can result in acute inflammation of the pulp, which causes swelling and pressure inside the tooth (that has nowhere to go), leading to tooth pain and eventually, irreversible damage to the pulp. Once the pulp dies, the pain may subside initially, sometimes to return as an acute (painful) infection spreading into the periapical tissues (“peri” – around; “apex” – end), particularly the bone. It could also become a chronic (long-standing) infection with symptoms ranging from mild to severe.
Generally speaking, whatever the cause of root canal or pulpal disease, root canal or endodontic treatment will be necessary to save the tooth. All dentists receive training in endodontic treatment and can perform root canal procedures, but often a general dentist will refer individuals who need endodontic treatment to an endodontist, a root canal specialist.